Rubber antioxidants and their transformation products: environmental occurrence and potential impact


Antioxidants are prevalently used during rubber production to improve rubber performance, delay aging, and extend service life. However, recent studies have revealed that their transformation products (TPs) could adversely affect environmental organisms and even lead to environmental events, which led to great public concern about environmental occurrence and potential impacts of rubber antioxidants and their TPs. In this review, we first summarize the category and application of rubber antioxidants in the world, and then demonstrate the formation mechanism of their TPs in the environment, emphasizing their influence on the ozone oxidative degradation. The potential toxic effects of antioxidants and their TPs are further reviewed to improve understanding of their biological health impact and environmental risks. Finally, the environmental occurrences of antioxidants and their TPs are summarized and their environmental impacts are demonstrated based on the recent studies. Due to the currently limited understanding on the toxic and biological effects of these compounds, further studies are required in order to better assess various TPs of these antioxidants and their environmental impact. To our knowledge, this is the first review on antioxidants and their TPs in the environment, which may elevate the environmental risk awareness of rubber products and their TPs in the near future.



Rubber antioxidants, Transformation products, Toxic effects, Occurrence, Environmental impacts


Xu, J., Hao, Y., Yang, Z., Li, W., Xie, W., Huang, Y., Wang, D., et al. (2022). Rubber Antioxidants and Their Transformation Products: Environmental Occurrence and Potential Impact. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(21), 14595. MDPI AG. Retrieved from