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    The cyanogenic potential of certain cassava varieties in Uganda and their fermentation-based detoxification
    (IntechOpen, 2023-04-04) Oloya, Benson; Adaku, Christopher; Andama, Morgan
    Cassava is the leading staple food in the developing world, providing an essential diet for about half a billion individuals. However, cassava contains significantly toxic compounds, the cyanogenic glycosides. Ingestion of such toxins in large quantities can lead to acute cyanide poisoning and may cause death in both humans and animals. Therefore, cassava may present a potential health risk to consumers. Information regarding the cyanogenic glycoside content is vital in averting health risks associated with cassava consumption. Accordingly, the seven most common local cultivars in Zombo district and six improved cultivars were grown and later characterized based on their cyanogenic potential. Additionally, the root tubers of Nyar-udota and Nyar-papoga were fermented to detoxify them from the cyanogens. The cyanogenic glycoside levels in the selected cultivars surpassed the critical value of 10 ppm established by the World Health Organization. The improved cassava had lower and moderately identical concentrations of HCN, unlike the local varieties. Cyanogenic contents were highest at 8-10 months. Fermentation led to substantial detoxification of the cyanogens, and the decrease varied with the fermentation period. In making choices for the cultivation and consumption of cassava, it is crucial to consider the cultivar, period of harvesting, and detoxification by fermentation.
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    Mixed diets enhance edible grasshopper, ruspolia differens (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) performance during mass rearing
    (IntechOpen, 2021-10-18) Malinga, Geoffrey Maxwell; Opoke, Robert; Rutaro, Karlmax
    Mixing of diets is a notable dietary practice that is believed to improve performance-related characteristics such as growth, survival rate and egg-laying potential among insect herbivores. However, currently there is limited information regarding the performance of edible insects either on artificial and natural diets or their mixtures. This chapter reviewed recent literature on performance of a seasonally harvested and a widely consumed edible grasshopper, Ruspolia differens (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) reared on various artificial and natural diets. Our aim is to highlight diets and diet mixtures that results in the highest R. differens production. The results of the review show that R. differens performs better on mixed diets than on single or less diversified diets. In all reviewed studies, edible grasshoppers fed mixed diets either of natural plants or artificial diets achieved highest final weights, highest survival, highest fecundity and fastest development times than less diversified diets. The information is useful in designing technologies for large-scale rearing program for this species.