Research Articles

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    Providing targeted incentives for trees on farms: A transdisciplinary research methodology applied in Uganda and Peru
    (Elsevier, 2023-03-11) Rode, Julian; Escobar, Marcela Muñoz; Khan, Sabina J.; Borasino, Elena; Kihumuro, Phillip; Okia, Clement Akias; Robiglio, Valentina; Zinngrebe, Yves
    Native trees are central elements of sustainable agriculture, providing economic futures to rural populations while safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services. We present a diagnostic methodology for (i) identifying ‘incentive opportunities’ for farmers to plant and manage trees on farms; (ii) proposing targeted packages of incentive and finance instruments; and (iii) describing levers for policy integration to support their implementation. In two case studies from Uganda and Peru, the ‘incentive opportunities’ consist of providing technical and financial support to farmers for planting and managing trees, generating income sources from native trees and support from the beneficiaries of tree-based ecosystem services, and eliminating incentives for tree removal. Many instruments to promote trees on farms already exist, but implementation is hampered by weak and fragmented institutions, limited funding and low political priority. The proposed methodology can guide the development of incentive instruments as part of implementing policy strategies for integrated biodiversity conservation and sustainable development.
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    A healthy diet for a growing population: a case study of Arua, Uganda
    (Springer Nature, 2023-01-27) Hermelink, Marleen I.; Pittore, Katherine H.; Álvarez Aranguiz, Adolfo; Pereira da Silva, Fatima I.; Roefs, Marlene M. I.; Kajobe, Robert; Malingumu, Richard; Hengsdijk, Huib
    It is uncertain whether Sustainable Development Goal 2 (SDG2), a healthy diet for all, can be achieved in East Africa given its strong population growth, low agricultural yields, and the high perishability of nutrient-dense foods. We examine the consequences of a locally produced healthy diet on land use in a case study of the Arua district in Uganda. This type of analysis can alert policy makers to looming nutrition gaps and support the selection of alternative solution strategies. Using a linear programming (LP) model and three population growth projections, we estimate the minimum agricultural area needed in 2040 to produce a healthy diet that follows EAT-Lancet dietary diversity guidelines and supplies the average requirements of calories, proteins, Iron, and vitamin A. We also compare in scenarios to what extent i) production intensification, ii) food loss reduction, iii) by-product consumption, and iv) vitamin supplementation could reduce the required agricultural area. Results show that the necessary area to produce a healthy diet in 2040 is 160% larger than Arua’s current crop area and would greatly exceed the district’s total area. We also show that none of the changes proposed in our scenarios allows a sufficient increase in food production, suggesting that a mix of even more drastic changes across sectors will be necessary. The results underline the challenge for rural areas in East Africa like Arua to provide a healthy diet to its fast growing population, requiring integrated food system changes and policy coordination to orchestrate the increased availability of diverse and nutritious foods.
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    Kernel morphometric characteristics and oil content among Shea tree genotypes in Uganda
    (African Journals Online, 2022-09-23) Odoi, J. B; Okia, Clement Akias; Gwali, S.; Odong, T. L.; Agaba, H.; Okullo, J. B. L.
    Shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa subsp. nilotica) is an important commercial tree for domestic oil and industrial products of cosmetics, chocolate and other confectionaries traded grown worldwide. We studied seed morphometric characteristics and crude oil content of Shea nuts in Uganda. Five populations, comprising of 16 ethnovarieties, were selected from Eastern, Northern and West Nile Sub-regions of Uganda, based on their attributes as judged by the farmers. Fresh kernel weight ranged from 2 to 18.85 mg per seed. Kernel weight increased with Shea fruit weight (y = 0.1499x + 6.1887, R² = 0.306). Moyo district had the highest oil content (54.37 ± 0.32%); while Amuru district had the lowest oil content (50.5 ± 1.32%). Oil content decreased with increasing kernel size (y = -0.4541x + 57.303, R² = 0.2116) and dry matter content (y = 0.635x - 9.863, R²= 0.011); and varied between ethnovarieties and Shea tree populations, p = 0.003 and P< 0.001, respectively. Tinny seeded (45.7 - 65.49%), Round fruited (45.41 - 65.91%), Dwarf tree (45.19 - 64.19%), Elliptical fruited (45.32 - 64.19%) and Soft pulped (42.16 - 69.77%) ethnovarieties had the highest oil content. Narrow sense heritability (h2) for oil yield was 1.72; while response to selection (R) was 16.48 with genetic gain (Gs) of 2.21%, given 10% top selection intensity.