Single Nucleotide Variants (SNVs) of Angiotensin-Converting Enzymes (ACE1 and ACE2):

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Sage Publishing


Background. Although it is common knowledge that the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) and other viral infections have an uneven impact globally, the reasons for this are still indistinct. The absence of equivalent capacities worldwide in screening, testing, and reporting of cases is one of the ideas put forward to explain this discrepancy. The molecular developments are noteworthy, particularly the role played by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ACEs (ACE1 and ACE2). The virus can enter the host cell thanks to the transmembrane protein ACE2, which is a homolog of ACE1. Objectives. With a focus on the I/D genotype of ACE1 and the rs2285666 SNV of ACE2, we elucidated the prevalence of SNPs in ACE1 and ACE2 in various geographic locations. We examined the relationship between these SNPs and the global patterns of COVID-19 prevalence. Methods. 66 of the 127 articles obtained using PubMed, Google Scholar, and Google directly conformed to the search terms; geographical distribution of viral infections, the prevalence of COVID-19, ACE1, ACE2, SNPs, and prevalence of the DD genotype, and rs2285666. Results. The DD genotype of ACE1 and the rs2285666 SNV of ACE2 are vital in their gene expression and contribute greatly to viral disease susceptibility, development, and severity. There was generally a high prevalence of the DD genotype in Europe and America, where COVID-19 had a more devastating effect than in Asia and Africa. The prevalence of the SNV rs2285666 varied in the following order: East Asia> South Asia >America>Europe >Africa. However, there were conflicting agreements in the association of rs2285666 with COVID-19 susceptibility and prevalence. Conclusion. The ACE1 DD genotype and COVID-19 prevalence have been positively linked in a number of studies. The ACE2 rs2285666 SNV, however, has yielded no definitive results. To determine the relationship between these SNVs and COVID-19 incidence, more research is required.



Nucleotide Variant, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2


Atiku, S. M., Kasozi, D., & Campbell, K. (2023). Single Nucleotide Variants (SNVs) of Angiotensin-Converting Enzymes (ACE1 and ACE2): A Plausible Explanation for the Global Variation in COVID-19 Prevalence. Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System, 2023.