Antimycobacterial Activity of the Extract and Isolated Compounds From the Stem Bark of Zanthoxylum leprieurii Guill. and Perr.
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Zanthoxylum leprieurii Guill. and Perr. (Rutaceae) stem bark is used locally in Uganda for treating tuberculosis (TB) and cough-related infections. Lupeol (1), sesamin (2), trans-fagaramide (3), arnottianamide (4), (S)-marmesinin (5), and hesperidin (6) were isolated from the chloroform/methanol (1:1) extract of Z. leprieurii stem bark. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques and by comparison with literature data. Furthermore, the extract and isolated compounds were subjected to antimycobacterial activity. The extract exhibited moderate activity against the susceptible (H37Rv) TB strain, but weak activity against the multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB strain with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 586.0 and 1172.0 μg/mL, respectively. Compound 3 (trans-fagaramide) showed significant antimycobacterial activity against the susceptible (H37Rv) TB strain (MIC 6 μg/mL), but moderate activity against the MDR-TB strain (MIC 12.2 μg/mL). Compounds 2, 5, 6, and 1 showed moderate activities against the susceptible (H37Rv) strain (MIC 12.2-98.0 μg/mL) and moderate to weak activities against theMDR-TB strain (MIC 24.4-195.0 μg/mL). This study reports for the first time the isolation of compounds 1 to 6 from the stem bark of Z leprieurii. trans-Fagaramide (3) may present a vital template in pursuit of novel and highly effective TB drugs.
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